GPS - Global Positioning System. Stand-alone receiver without diffential correction is suitable for broad-scale surveying but not suitable for precision viticulture applications.


DGPS - Differential GPS. Stand-alone receiver with regional correction signal. Recommended for precision viticulture applications since accuracy in horizontal positioning (ie. longitude and latitude) is sub-metre.


RTKGPS - Real Time Kinematic GPS. Receiver corrects satellite positions from a local base station. Centimeter accuracy. Required for accurate surveying in both horizontal and vertical positioning.


DMSI - Digital Multi-Specteral Imagery. Four seperate imaging sensors detect the reflected light at the blue, green, red and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. These purpose built cameras are carried by light aircraft and used to assess the relative size, shape and health of plants (including grapevines).


Yield monitors - measure the weight of grapes flowing across load cells fitted below the conveyor belt of mechanical harvesters.


Soil sensing - the most commonly-used vineyard soil sensors include electromagnetic induction sensors (eg. EM38), gamma-ray spectrometers and ground penetrating radar.